But I wrote Beyond the Crossroads , as the title suggests, to dig down through the familiar southern Gothic mythology and figure out why the devil is such an important part of the blues tradition.
27: Robert Johnson The Legend, The Devil & The Crossroads
No, Johnson did not sell his soul to the devil. But most of the book is about other aspects of the devil and the blues—things that show up, for example, in the more than devil-blues songs I tracked down and transcribed. AG: Yes, in part. I was fascinated by the ubiquity of that phrase, which shows up in the recollections of pretty much every black southerner who comes of age in the first half of the twentieth century. When I dug back into the antebellum past, I found: the fiddle!
The Blues . Blues Classroom . Lesson Plans . Crossroads Blues | PBS
A bunch of things happen in the late nineteenth century that suddenly create a moral and existential crisis in African American families, especially in the Bible Belt. Cheap steel-string guitars become widely available. Juke joints—free black expressive spaces designed for drinking, dancing, gambling, and hanging out—are created. At the same time, independent black church denominations are coming into their own; the ministry becomes one of the few ways that ambitious black men can rise high in public esteem.
So the ministers start demonizing the competition—and chastising their kids, who love the sexy new music. And blues? But other black southerners, and especially the blues musicians themselves, many of whom were the children of ministers and church members, angrily disputed the charge. Most of his peers agreed with him. Satan and Adam? What kind of a blues scholar are you, Dr. Sterling and I recorded and toured as Satan and Adam, and we still play gigs now and then, more than thirty years later.
Neither does Sterling. He was born in Arkansas, but his home base during the late s and s was East St.
The Mercenary There are more elusive things than water in this wasteland. Until his unit is attacked by a pack of Tamer-controlled wolves, and his ingenious mechanical arm fails. At least until he reaches a technician who can repair his arm. Reluctant trust turns to desire in the wake of another Tamer attack, and the adrenaline rush locks them in a bond of wildfire lust. When they get to London, Asher manages to work out only part of the reason.
So big, even quick-with-a-comeback Gabriel is maddeningly tight-lipped. Product Warnings This title contains hot mansex, mild but manly swearing, jealousy possibly leading to yet more hot mansex, ancestral rituals, frightening flying machines, clockwork owls, inopportune admirers and the complicity of odd scientists. Available on Samhain Publishing Website and Amazon. As he spends the night at a village's inn, the innkeeper begs him to help stop a mischevious kitsune, a fox spirit, plaguing their village.
But when he captures the spirit—in the form of a hauntingly beautiful man—Hajime learns that the kitsune has troubles of his own. The pearl that contains the fox's soul has been stolen, leaving him a slave to the new owner, who is forcing him to attack the village. Kitsune are tricksters above all, and Hajime must decide how much of the story the fox tells him is truth. What's worse, an old comrade of Hajime's is in town, bringing with him the sour memories of Hajime's time as a samurai.
Hajime must find a way to locate the thief and steal back the jewel before the thief turns the kitsune's considerable power against him. And maybe for more whiskey. Does he go down the path with the devil or stay on the "righteous" road? What evidence supports either interpretation? To help students answer this question, distribute the lyrics to another Johnson song, "Me and the Devil Blues. Instruct the class about the legend surrounding Johnson as someone who did indeed sell his soul to the devil in order to become an amazing musician.
This legend was fueled by the fact that he possessed amazing musical talent and skill, he had the "evil eye" most likely a cataract , and his guitar teacher, Ike Zinnerman, supposedly learned to play guitar at night sitting atop tombstones in old country churchyards. The legend was also supported by a statement made by bluesman Son House, who once said about Johnson, "He sold his soul to play like that.
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After providing this background, assign students to complete the story begun in "Cross Road Blues. Focus Exercise The concept of the crossroads as a place where one makes important decisions is not foreign to American poetry. This exercise explores the idea by asking students to consider two poems with a crossroads theme. Why not?
What does the speaker mean by "that has made all the difference? Discussion questions can include: What might the crossroads in this poem have looked like? What paths do the characters face? What factors might determine their options and motivate their decisions?
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What point does Brooks make about the choices of the characters in the poem? Do the characters in this poem take the path less traveled?
Why or why not? Have you faced decisions similar to the characters in this poem? Conclude by asking students to critically examine what societal, economic, and cultural factors might inhibit the characters in "We Real Cool" from taking the more promising road less traveled. Research and Analysis Legends like that of Robert Johnson and others such as Tommy Johnson and Peetie Wheatstraw have resulted in the blues being labeled "the devil's music," contrasted frequently with gospel, or "God's music. After this introduction, assign students to research:.
Some good resources for students include: Oakley, Giles.
Blues and Evil. Knoxville: University of Tennessee Press, Synthesis and Assessment The term "standing at the crossroads," present in Robert Johnson 's " Cross Road Blues ," is today used in a variety of contexts. Ask students to research a variety of ways the term has been used, starting by searching for the phrase online. Once students have uncovered a variety of meanings, assign them to create posters that explore the term. The posters should include visuals as well as text.
Older students could also write an accompanying paper in which they describe how the term "standing at the crossroads" has become widespread and multilayered. Extensions Additional Exercise 1. The theme of selling one's soul at the crossroads is prevalent not only in blues music such as Johnson's, but in literature as well.